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The development of suitable probiotics for biocontrol in aquaculture would result in less reliance on chemicals and antibiotics and result in a better envi ronment medications related to the female reproductive system buy flutamide 250mg overnight delivery. In this investigation 6 mp treatment 250mg flutamide mastercard, a Thai Bacillus isolate (strain S11) was used as a probiotic bacterium by passage through Artemia sp medications safe for dogs discount flutamide 250mg mastercard. It was found that black tiger shrimp larvae reared using the Bacillus-fortified Artemia probiotic as a feed had significantly shorter development times and fewer disease problems than larvae reared without the probiotic symptoms 5 weeks into pregnancy order generic flutamide online. They are important causes of diseases which successfully for raising healthy and disease-tolerant farm ani may readily spread through water to medications via g-tube buy flutamide on line aquatic animal hosts medications rights buy 250 mg flutamide amex. These environment by involvement in C, N, S and P cycles impor probiotics are now widely used for enhancing production of tant for ecological balances. Other microbes live in and on land animals and they have gained acceptance as being bet aquatic plants and animals. These may be specific for indi ter, cheaper and more effective in promoting animal health vidual organisms and important to their health. Bacteria and unicel sels in Thailand provides good income for producers and lular algae capable of inhibiting pathogenic bacteria have products that are popular because of their good taste and been found (Munro et al. The diminishing seafood from capture fish setting criteria for the most suitable probiotics in aquaculture, eries has paved the way to industrial scale aquaculture. In one must be concerned with indirect effects on ecosystem Thailand, particularly for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus cycles and food chains. Other researchers have found that production due to viral diseases such as yellow head virus probiotics prevent diseases in salmon (Austin et al. Reduction of pathogens by microorganisms that possess probiotic properties at in vitro. Aquatic animal Microorganisms Pathogens References Fish Antibiotic-producing Aeromonas hydrophila B-32 Dopazo et al. Aquatic animal Probiotic strain Challenge test with Results References Salmon Tetraselmis A. For example, Lactobacillus plantarum inhibi Probiotics and black tiger shrimp culture tory to the salmon pathogen Vibrio anguillarum could not Rengpipat et al. Shrimp survival was Probiotics can be freshly prepared and mixed with the also determined in each tank at the end of the first and sec shrimp diet as described by Rengpipat et al. Weekly water samples of 100 ml were collected ever, this study was carried out to determine the effective from the center of each tank for two weeks. Water quality ness of feeding the Artemia encapsulated probiotic Bacillus was monitored weekly and included the parameters of tem strain S11 for enhancing growth and survival of shrimp lar perature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium ion and vae. Shrimp in the control and Bacterial culture treated groups (85 shrimp per treatment) were immersed in Bacillus strain S11 (Rengpipat et al. At the same time, three shrimp flasks for 24 h, after which the cells were centrifuged and from each treatment were randomly sampled. The nauplii were then fed were purified and identified using Gram staining, an oxi directly to the shrimp postlarvae or kept at 4oC for further dase test and motility test and they were compared with the use. Shrimp sur vival was determined for each treatment after 4 days of the Experimental design challenge test. Penaeus monodon postlarvae-10 were bought from a backyard hatchery in Chonburi Province, Thailand. Artemia hatching when compared to Artemia alone or Artemia fed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Water was continuously pumped through the fil Artemia encapsulated Bacillus strain S11 showed an increase tering unit by an air lift system. No obvious effects of rinated tap water was added every two days to compensate Bacillus strain S11 on water quality were found (Table 4). Statistical comparisons of the control group (fed Artemia At two weeks, Penaeus monodon survival was significantly only) and the treated group (fed probiotic Artemia) were different between the control group (85%) and the treated carried out using a student t-test. Average live weight and length of Penaeus monodon cultured for 2 15 weeks in two feed treatments 13 Parameters Control Probiotics Weight (mg) 26. Range of water quality values in shrimp culture 4 water during 2 weeks of probiotic trial. There When challenged with the luminous disease bacterium fore, this investigation supported the previous work and also Vibrio harveyi, the shrimp treated with probiotics showed a showed that probiotics could be passed through Artemia higher survival (13%) when compared to the control group which are routinely used to feed shrimp larvae. Vibrio harveyi was more virulent to younger may prove beneficial as an enhancement for hatchery stages of shrimp. High numbers of Vibrio harveyi were postlarvae or for improvement of young shrimp survival at present in both the rearing water and the shrimp themselves the initial stages of earthen pond culture. However, Bacillus strain S11 was also detected in significant numbers Mechanisms of probiotic action in the host are not fully in the rearing water and the shrimp, clearly showing that understood. However, a user may select strains that are suit Artemia was an effective probiotic carrier. The purpose of their use in aquaculture is to reduce the dependence on antibiotics and chemicals, thus improving environmental safety. Use of local isolates is recommended for biosafety reasons and to avoid sudden changes in the 100100 microbial flora of the ecosystem. Aquaculture 90: 389-392 Time (weeks) Austin B, Baudet E, Stobie M (1992) Inhibition of bacterial fish pathogens by Tetraselmis suecica. Penaeus monodon survival after culture for 2 (1995) A probiotic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus effective in weeks on control and probiotic feeds. Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus Aquaculture 119: 25-40 monodon survival and growth. J Appl Bacteriol 66: Rengpipat S, Phianpak W, Piyatiratitivorakul S, Menasveta P Uti 365-378 lization of Lactobacillus spp. Riquelme C, Araya R, Vergara N, Rojas A, Guaita M, Candia M Fuller R (1997) Probiotics 2 Applications and practical aspects. Use of By-9 as a Probiotic Agent in the Larval Rearing of Penaeus monodon Ketut Sugama Haryanti, S. Batceria were required that would sup press the growth of other pathogenic bacteria, especially Vibrio harveyi, but would not kill or inhibit useful microflora. The present study reports the isolation, vibriostatic testing and mass culture of such bacteria, fol lowed by application in the larval rearing of P. The latest test was conducted in 18 ton larval rearing tanks where its density was maintained at 106 cfu/ml. Will Microbial Manipulation Sustain the Ecological Balance in Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) Hatcheries? Manipulation of hatchery microbial ecology has gained popularity, but for successful implementation, this niche filling approach requires a thorough understanding of the epidemiology of bacterial diseases in the hatchery. This study examined the responses of Vibrio harveyi populations, (associated with luminescent vibriosis in shrimp larvae) to various physico-chemical factors and various hatchery components. However, it was evident from the results that there were components in the shrimp hatchery environment that could be manipulated to control high populations of V. The natural microflora of seawater, as well as the microbial flora associated with the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros calcitrans negatively affected the survival of V. The successful manipulation of such benign microbial components to compete with and exclude potential pathogens is necessary to sustain ecological balance in the shrimp hatchery environ ment. Preventive measures are, therefore, conditions and components that could control its growth, necessary. The effect of chlorine as water treatment against and tested its growth in mix cultures with diatoms and other V. All these were aimed at identifying an ecologically hatcheries (Baticados & Pitogo 1990). A detailed analysis of the possible origin of lumines tion of a niche for opportunistically pathogenic bacteria. From successful ef Growth response of Vibrio harveyi to different forts in land-based animal production industries, it is gener salinity, pH and temperature ally recognized that environmental management to reduce the growth response of Vibrio harveyi to various tem disease impacts is more reliable for increasing profitability peratures, salinity, and pH levels were studied using nutrient than pathogen? hunts for most diseases (Stoskopf 1996). Standardized bacterial inoculum con tained an initial bacterial density of 101colony forming units Armed with this view and with growing evidence for fea sible microbial manipulation in the larval rearing environ (cfu)/ml. For salinity and pH tolerance tests, cultures were ment of various aquatic species (Dopazo et al. The supernatants were sterilized by filtration using done daily for 7 consecutive days. Growth response of Vibrio harveyi to various Vibrio harveyi was inoculated as previously described. Sterile seawater obtained from peak cultures and added into the vessels to was used as the test medium and control. Lar preparation of solutions and product concentration followed vae were washed gently to remove surface-attached bacteria the manufacturers? directions. Inoculated bacterial suspensions resulted to an and inoculated as previously described. The jars were aerated and in Mixed cultures were kept with minimum shaking through cubated under static conditions at room temperature. High numbers of colony forming units were ob Mixed culture tests tained at various salinity levels up to and beyond 7 days. The harveyi cultures used in all tests were grown overnight on growth patterns of Vibrio harveyi at pH 6 to 9 were very nutrient agar with 2. High populations of bacteria remained viable calcitrans populations in the tests even after 7 days of inoculation. Two levels of Skeletonema and Chaetoceros were used: the growth patterns of Vibrio harveyi exposed to vari peak cell cultures and feeding levels. Prepa rial density in all treatments after inoculation was 104 cfu/ ration of feeding densities was accomplished by adding por ml. It is interesting to note that in the absence of competitors tions of peak cell cultures to sterilized seawater to obtain a in sterilized seawater, V. Presumptive Vibrio colonies larvae or a combination of both, started to decrease after 3 decreased from 7. Mean bacterial counts obtained from various phases of Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros calcitrans cultures. Reduction of 200 200,000 Vibrio harveyi popula tion in mixed cultures 0 0 with Skeletonema 1 2 3 4 costatim. Growth patterns of Vibrio harveyi in mixed culture with diatoms Control 100 at 30,000-50,000 cells/ml. In cell luminescent vibriosis may not be expected in freshwater cul free filtrates of the same diatoms, however, the cells of V. In mixed cultures with feeding-density levels of diatoms, sustained high populations for several days. Reported antibacterial activity of strain by Krieg and Holt (1984), and they show that there seawater has been ascribed to physico-chemical effects and are no constraining environmental conditions that Penaeus biological factors, including predation, competition for nu monodon larvae can tolerate (Parado-Estepa et al. The inhibition of bacterial pathogens by ex They should be able to re-establish rapidly in the rear tracts and supernatants derived from spray-dried prepara ing environment following regular water exchange tions of the microalga Tetraselmis suecica have been reported To work as exclusion agents, they should be able to (Austin & Day 1990, Austin et al. Sieburth larval rearing (1968) found that high populations of the diatom Skeletonema costatum could inhibit Vibrio. Interestingly, however, the the disease and pest problems that the aquaculture in same study showed that dominant Flavobacterium associ dustry is facing are mirror images of the travails faced by ated with the diatom did not show inhibitory action against other animal industries when they were starting. In another study (Rico-Mora & can be learned from disease management protocols adapted Voltolina 1995a), Flavobacterium was also among the five by the poultry, cattle and hog industries. When formulating strains of bacteria (including Plesiomonas, Aeromonas and biological products and protocols for disease control, it is two strains of Vibrio) found in non-axenic cultures of S. In that study, however, bacteriostatic and antibi consider areas that will make its implementation successful otic reactions among the strains were found. Sheila Mae Buen provided sis of bacterial associations is needed in order to exploit their excellent help with the graphs. Aside from inhibitory activity, bacteria of choice should be benign to larval stages being cultured. Dis Aquat petitive exclusion, or habitat and rearing water condition Org 9: 133-140 ing. Israeli J Aquacult Bamidgeh 42: 128-130 tion and implementation in the poultry industry and it is gen Dopazo C, Lemos M, Lodieros C, Bolinches J, Barja J, Toranzo A erally based on competitive exclusion of Salmonella (Stavric (1988) Inhibitory activity of antibiotic-producing marine bac & D?Aoust 1993). J Appl Bacteriol 65: 97-101 teria can be be effective as feed additives or simply added to Garriques D, Arevalo G (1995) An evaluation of the production the water and whether they act as competitors or inhibitors and use of live bacterial isolate to manipulate the microbial flora in the commercial production of Penaeus vannamei should be studied further. Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, p 107-121 192 Lavilla-Pitogo et al. J Invert Pathol 66: 203-204 Studies on the sources of luminescent Vibrio harveyi in Penaeus Riquelme C, Araya R, Vergara N, Rojas A, Guaita M, Candia M monodon hatcheries. Fish Microbially matured water a technique for selection of a non Pathol 33: (in press). Aquacult International 5: 13-28 petitive dominance of antibiotic-producing marine bacteria in Stavric S, D?Aoust J-Y (1993) Undefined and defined bacterial mixed cultures. Can J Fish Aquat lulu, Hawaii, p 91-100 Sci 49: 2373-2376 Sugita H, Shibuya K, Shimooka H, Deguchi Y (1996) Antibacte Rico-Mora R, Voltolina D (1995a) Bacterial interactions in rial abilities of intestinal bacteria in freshwater cultured fish. Aquaculture 145: 195-203 Rivista Italiana Acquacoltura 30: 105-109 Waage J (1996) Yes, but does it work in the field the challenge of Rico-Mora R, Voltolina D (1995b) Effects of bacterial isolates from technology transfer in biological control. One potential way to increase the shrimp defense potential may be immunostimulation, i. Numerical, morphological and ultrastructural aspects of the three main hemocyte types (hyaline, semi-granular and granular hemocytes) were studied. With the aid of eight monoclonal antibodies, a finer discrimination was made of sub populations, using light and electron microscopy and facs analysis. Functional defense capacities were meas ured by studying phagocytic activity, lysosomal enzyme activities, chemotactic responses, and mitotic activity of the hemocytes.

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In contrast treatment lice generic 250mg flutamide fast delivery, hardly any development of the bacterial popula tion was detectable on cinnamaldehyde-treated tomatoes (Figure 10 treatment ulcerative colitis generic 250 mg flutamide free shipping. The microbial population on cinnamaldehyde-treated fruits (^) treatment action group purchase flutamide 250 mg free shipping, NaCl-treated fruits medicine 9312 flutamide 250mg cheap, and untreated fruits (? The data represent mean values of triplicate measurements medicine 91360 purchase genuine flutamide line, and each data point is calculated from a sample of five tomato fruits treatment 4 high blood pressure cheap 250 mg flutamide mastercard. A bottle neck for practical use of these compounds may be not the efficacy, but rather specific odors associated with such compounds at higher dosages. To overcome this problem, antifungal plant metabolites should be selected for both efficacy and minimal interference with the natural odor of the product. Often these components increase the competitive edge of the producing organism and as such are an important feature of their survival and proliferation. For centuries, these have been used in food fermentation to produce stable food products, including dairy (cheese), meat (sausages), and vegetable (sauerkraut) products. Alternatively, preparations of the active antimi crobial compounds may be utilized, with the advantage of an instant and more controllable effect. While the use of protective cultures in most countries needs only to be declared on the product, the use of antimicrobial metabolites such as the bacteriocins is subject to specific rules and regulations in food leg islation. The many different antimicrobials they produce are able to counteract a wide range of competitors that would cause problems in the fermentation process. Production of acids as the main antimicrobial agents is often detrimental to food quality and is not a suitable mechanism of action for protective cultures. Their exploitation depends partly on legislative hurdles relating to the consideration that protective cultures that rely for their activity on bacteriocins are intended for use as preservative agents and function by use of compounds not yet generally recognized as safe in many coun tries, as discussed elsewhere in this chapter. This is in sharp contrast to the legal status of starter cultures, which are considered to be processing aids or ingredients and not preservatives, and for which the mode of action seems not to be a decisive issue from the legislatory point of view. Recently, it has been advo cated to employ molecular biology tools to improve the performance of starter and protective cultures with regard to their production or preservation capacity [38]. Since, within the current food legislations, natural strains already have limited access to practice, it is expected that the use of genetically modified strains will not be approved so easily. Some reviews on the topic are available [40,55,56,63,81,85,108,114], although several are published in sources that may not be readily accessible. Experiments performed by the same researchers on comminuted cured pork (German-type fresh Mettwurst) with pH 5. A mutant of Lactobacillus sake that did not produce the bacteriocin did not affect the number of Listeria inoculated into this product. In another study using Lactobacillus sake as the protective culture, the control of L. Using bacteriocin-producing and nonbacteriocin-producing strains of Pediococcus acidilactici for pro tection of turkey summer sausages against L. Here, the protective cul ture would grow during conditions of temperature abuse, producing lactic acid and inhibitory pediocins. Pediocin producers have also been used as protective cultures relying on their lactic acid production, rather than on the production of a bacteriocin. When the chicken salad was temperature abused, the protective culture catabolized available glucose to lactic acid, which caused a decrease in the pH of the product. Pathogen challenge tests verified that the rate and extent of lactic acid accumulation in the chicken salad during temperature abuse was sufficient to preclude botulinum toxigenesis. Kotzekidou and Bloukas [64] studied the effect of protective cultures on the shelf life of sliced vacuum-packed cooked ham. They found that cooked ham produced with Lactobacillus alimentarius and Staphylococcus xylosus as protective cultures was acceptable up to 28 days, while control ham had a Natural Antimicrobials for Food Preservation 247 shelf life of 21 days. The activity of the protective cultures was directed toward micrococci, staphylo cocci, and B. While they do not reduce spoilage by bacilli, yeasts, or fungi, the protective cultures used could reduce the growth of pathogens and actually spoiled the food before the pathogens could grow to hazardous levels. Andersen [3] recently reported on a commercial protective culture (?FloraCarn L2) developed for fresh sausages, which can be used as an additional safety and quality factor where contamination during or after processing is a possible hazard. FloraCarn L2 was tested in fresh British sausage mince and was shown to suppress the indigenous microflora and B. In fresh coarse chopped sausages, the protective culture inhibited the possible development of indigenous coliform bacteria during storage. Although both starter cultures produced bacteriocin at 4?C, they were not able to suppress growth of L. The protective cultures were equally ineffective when applied on vacuum-packaged emulsion type sausages (pH 6. Apparently, the amounts of bacteriocin produced in situ by the low initial numbers of protective cultures employed were not sufficient to inhibit or reduce L. Coculture of the pathogen with a nisin-producing strain of Lactococcus lactis subsp. However, when the protective culture was inoculated on slices of commercial cold smoked salmon stored at 10?C for 21 days, no net growth was detected. Despite this lack of evidence of in situ proliferation of the protective culture on cold smoked salmon slices coinoculated with L. Although a complete reduction of the pathogen was not achieved, the experiments proved the point that control of proliferation was feasible under practical conditions. Three different bacteriocins were evaluated (nisin Z, carnocin U149, and bavaricin A) for their biopreservative potency. With nisin Z, the most effective bacteriocin, a delay in bacterial growth was observed that resulted in an extension of the shelf life by 21 days (from 10 to 31 days). The strongest preservative effect was found with sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, which completely inhibited microbial growth for 59 days when added to the brined shrimps at levels of 0. Many clostridia are sensitive to nisin, and the use of the protective culture resulted in a significant extension of the shelf life of the product. Specifically, spoilage by Clostridium sporogenes was reduced in the nisin-containing cheese spreads. The pathogen was suppressed by the added protective culture, whereas the activity of the thermophilic starter used in the cheese-making process was not affected. They observed that heat-treated cultures of such strains added to mozzarella cheese inoculated with L. Listeria counts remained significantly below those of the samples prepared without the addition of biopreservatives during a storage period of 2?3 weeks at 5?C. Giraffa [40] presented a concise state-of-the-art review on the use of biological preservation with dairy products. Furthermore, bacteriocin-producing starter cultures may be useful in the fermentation of sauerkraut [18,49] or olives to prevent the growth of spoilage organisms. In contrast, a nonbacteriocin-producing variant of this strain was out numbered by the natural Lactobacillus population. Important criteria for selection were minimum growth temperature, rate of acidification at refrigeration tempera ture, and rapid growth and acid formation at abuse temperature (mimicking interruption of the cold chain). It was found that addition of Leuconostoc cremoris as a protective culture to potato salad completely controlled E. Importantly, it was concluded that the best protective effects were observed when the ratio of Lactobacillus lactis subsp. Thus, the bacteriocins or their producers can probably not be used as a general safety hurdle, but could still be used to form a specific hurdle to suppress the growth of notorious Gram-positive pathogens such as L. Although many different bacteriocins have currently been identified and their potential use as food preservatives is apparent, the exploitation in current practice is limited to two bacteriocins: nisin and pediocin. The limited exploitation of bacteriocins is mainly due to the rather small bactericidal range of most bacteriocins, their low efficiency of production, their limited stability in the food matrix, and, over all, their disputed regulatory status. In fact, considering the limitations to practical application, only a few of the new bacteriocins have sufficient favorable assets in comparison to nisin and pediocin that would warrant the effort of pursuing implementation in practice. Nevertheless, the increasing doubt about the safety of traditional chemical preservatives such as nitrite and propionate fuels the revival of interest seen in applied research today aimed at the introduction of natural preservative factors such as the bacteriocins. Ever since the identification of the inhibitory activity of a strain of Lactococcus lactis subsp. For food preservation, advantageous features of several bacteriocins are their relatively high heat resistance and inhibition of Gram-positive foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms. This cold-tolerant bac terium, which can result in a high mortality rate, occurs in many different foods, causing problems specifically in dairy (soft cheeses) and meat (pate, sausages) products. A brief overview Has Been Used of the research on three interesting bacteriocins is presented with data taken from a variety of Food Product Function or Use sources [25,30,31,48,55,61,76,87,99]. Swiss-type cheese Prevention of blowing faults caused by clostridia Milk Extension of shelf life 10. The lactic acid bacteria bacteriocin is produced by some strains of Wine Control of spoilage by lactic Lactococcus lactis subsp. Originally, nisin was considered for use as an 250 Handbook of Food Preservation, Second Edition antibiotic, but because its range of inhibition is limited, it was not judged suitable for therapeutic use. However, nisin is completely degraded in the alimentary tract and it therefore can be used safely as a food additive. Its potential use as a food preservative was first demonstrated through the successful employment of nisin-producing cultures in the manufacture of Swiss-type cheeses. Owing to their inhi bition of gas-producing clostridia, blowing of the cheeses is prevented. Although vegetative cells of these organisms are killed or reduced in number by normal processing conditions, the heat-resistant spores require an excessive botulinum cook? or the use of chemical additives to prevent their outgrowth. Nisin may be used as a natural additive to inhibit spore outgrowth or reduce their heat resistance. Nisin has been used in conjunction with other preservative measures to enhance product safety or quality. In canned foods such as vegetables, soups, and puddings, nisin has been applied in conjunction with heating to successfully counteract heat-resistant spores of flat-sour thermophilic bacteria. Normal heating and nisin may be combined for milk preservation in countries where pasteurization, refrigera tion, and transportation facilities are not adequate and where it is difficult to assure the supply of good quality milk to the public. When nisin is used with acetic, lactic, or citric acid, the effectiveness of blanching and pasteurization treatments may be better than with nisin or the organic acids alone. The use of nisin in combination with nitrite in meat products has been reported frequently. Although the combined application may allow for less nitrite to exert an identical degree of inhibition of clostridia compared to nitrite alone, the meat systems seem to influence the effectiveness of nisin strongly. Conceivably, binding of nisin to meat particles and high salt concentration may reduce the amount of nisin in solution where it may be active. The first report on pediocin production dates back to 1975, when it was found that Pediococcus pentosaceus inhibited growth and acid production of Lactobacillus plantarum, an undesirable competitor in mixed-brine cucumber fermentation. Extensive tests have shown that this pediocin is nontoxic, nonimmunogenic, and readily hydrolyzed by gastric enzymes. The potent antilisterial activ ity and the effectiveness of pediocin AcH and other pediocins as biopreservatives have by now been well established experimentally in beef wieners, semidry sausage, frankfurters, and fresh meat. Several different antimicrobials are known to be produced by strains of Lactobacillus sake, which normally reside in meat products. These strains are well adapted to the conditions in meats and conceivably are the best com petitors in this food environment. A similar bacteriocin is produced by a strain of Lactobacillus sake isolated from Spanish thy sausages. Bacteriocin-producing strains of Lactobacillus helveticus (producing helveticins and lactocins), Lactobacillus acidophilus (lactacins, acidophilucin), and Lactobacillus plantarum (plantaricins, plantacin) have been most extensively studied in this respect. A combined preservation scheme would be advantageous here, as shown by Stevens et al. Although the methods used were not always standardized, it is generally accepted that only a very small number of isolates obtained from food products are able to produce bacteriocins and that the spectrum of inhibition is highly variable. Approximately 1000 isolates from each of the food cate gories were tested to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas fragi. The majority of active strains was effective against only one of the indicators, but a few were inhibitory to two or three of the target microorgan isms. In our own laboratory, only 9 out of 890 isolates taken from fresh and modified-atmosphere-stored vegetables were found to be bacteriocinogenic [9,10]. In this way, the dosage of the bacteriocin can be most accurate and thus its effect most predictable. However, application of (semi)purified preparations is limited by national regulations concerning food additives. This mode avoids 252 Handbook of Food Preservation, Second Edition the use of a purified compound while still being able to use a preparation of known and constant activ ity. This latter method is now employed for the industrial-scale production of nisin preparations. At a sufficiently high level, the substrate is pasteurized, which kills the bacteria but does not affect the heat-stable nisin. A suitable application system for natural antimicrobials of microbial origin was recently developed for the control of L. This study set out with the concept that for a suitable protective culture to grow well and produce sufficient amounts of the bacteri ocin, it should be well adapted to the ecosystem it is used in and therefore might best be obtained from the food product considered. Three isolates were found to have the required characteristics: one strain of Enterococcus mundtii and two strains of Pediococcus parvulus. Both pediococci, however, only produced significant amounts of bacteriocin at temperatures over 15?C and were not really suited for any application at lower temperature. On laboratory media (sterile vegetable extract in agar), the application of the mundticin producer as a protective culture at 8?C was very promising (Figure 10. Either the production of mundticin on produce at low temperature is not sufficient or the mundticin is inactivated after production (enzymatic inactivation, adsorption to produce). Since the application of partially purified bacteriocin was found to significantly delay the growth of L. Identical results were obtained when the product was treated with a mundticin-containing alginate film. The increase of the viable count of the pathogen after 5 days may, again, be attributed to proteolytic degradation and growth of part of the Listeria population that was not affected by the intact mundticin.

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This speeds absorption and reduces tissue contact time with the irritant substance. Reflex increases in heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume are probably produced in response to the decrease in peripheral vascular resistance. Promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, renal excretion of calcium, capillary wall permeability and stability, and red blood cell production; suppresses immune and inflammatory responses. Application to large body surface areas may produce absorption with systemic effects. Sandoglobulin is also indicated for treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. If the desired clinical response or level of IgG is insufficient, then increase the dose to 300 mg/kg or repeat the dose more frequently. If the desired clinical response is not achieved or the level of IgG is insufficient, increase the dose to 200 mg/kg (4 mL/kg) or repeat the dose more frequently than once per month. If the desired clinical response is not achieved or the level of IgG is insufficient, increase the dose to 200-400 mg/kg to maintain a serum IgG level >500 mg/dL. If either occurs, the rate of infusion should be decreased or stopped until resolved, then resumed at a slower rate as tolerated. Action is principally by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, thus inhibiting cyclooxygenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandin precursors (endoperoxides) from arachidonic acid. Displaces bilirubin from albumin binding sites but is not considered clinically significant. In skeletal and cardiac muscle and adipose tissue, insulin facilitates transport of glucose into these cells. Stimulates lipogenesis and protein synthesis and inhibits lipolysis and release of free fatty acids from adipose cells. Note: Should be diluted by the pharmacy to 1 unit/mL in diluent provided by the manufacturer to improve accuracy in measurement and avoid overdose. Nervousness, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, dry mouth, exacerbation of symptoms, airway irritation, cough, palpitations, rash, and urinary difficulty. Oral iron is much safer than the parenteral form; the parenteral form is usually reserved for patients who cannot take oral iron. Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, cardiac stimulation (inotropic and chronotropic), and peripheral vasodilation (reduces cardiac afterload). Increases cardiac oxygen consumption disproportional to the increase in cardiac oxygen output. Active primarily against gram-negative aerobic bacteria, including Escherichia coli; Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Proteus spp; and some Pseudomonas spp. Desired serum peak is 25-35 mcg/mL (sample obtained 30 min after infusion is complete), and serum trough is <10 mcg/mL (sample obtained 30 min to just before next dose). In general, a set of serum peak and trough levels should be obtained at about the fourth maintenance dose. Increases cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption; improves pulmonary compliance and relieves bronchospasm. Cardiovascular: Elevated blood pressure (frequent), tachycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension, bradycardia, increased cerebral blood flow, and decreased cardiac output may occur. Minimize by reducing verbal, tactile, and visual simulation in the recovery period. Increased muscle tone that may resemble seizures and extensor spasm with opisthotonos may occur in infants receiving high, repeated doses. Fungicidal against Blastomyces dermatitidis, Candida spp, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Phialophora spp. Minimum period of treatment for candidiasis is 1-2 weeks, but duration should be based on clinical response. Oral labetalol has a bioavailability of only 25% because of extensive first-pass effect. Labetalol oral liquid, 40 mg/mL, can be compounded by the pharmacist from tablets and a sweetened vehicle (see Am J Health Syst Pharm 1996;53: 2304). Do not discontinue chronic labetalol abruptly; rather, discontinue gradually over 1 2 weeks. Do not use in patients with asthma, overt cardiac failure, heart block, cardiogenic shock, or severe bradycardia. May cause a paradoxic increase in blood pressure in patients with pheochromocytoma. Deficiency in infants results in growth retardation and failure of brain growth and development. Tablets may be crushed and mixed with water or a small amount of infant formula and administered immediately after mixing. If the following occur, discontinue and reinstitute at a lower dose: tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, tremors, diarrhea, weight loss, and fever. Muscle twitching, seizures, coma, respiratory depression, and respiratory arrest may also occur. Penetrates the blood-brain barrier more slowly than diazepam; however, the duration of action of lorazepam in the control of seizure activity in children studied was at least 3 h in 83% of cases and 24 h or longer in nearly 59% of cases. Acts on cardiac muscle to slow sinoatrial nodal impulse formation and prolong conduction time. Duration of respiratory depression can extend several hours beyond the plasma half-life. Other side effects include respiratory and circulatory depression, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and sedation. Caution: Methadone may accumulate; reassess for the need to adjust the dose downward after 3-5 days to avoid overdose. Smaller doses or less frequent administration may be required in renal and hepatic dysfunction. Tapering is difficult with methadone because of its long duration of action; consider morphine instead. Active chiefly against penicillinase-positive and penicillinase-negative staphylococci. May cause hypersensitivity reactions, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, phlebitis at the infusion site, and hemorrhagic cystitis (in poorly hydrated patients). In neonates and infants, the drug has been used investigationally for feeding intolerance and gastroesophageal reflux. Extrapyramidal reactions may occur but usually subside 24 h after discontinuance of the drug, and most patients will respond rapidly to diphenhydramine. Good activity against anaerobic protozoa, including Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Balantidium coli. Good activity also against gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp) and anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (Bacteroides and Fusobacterium spp). Nonsporulating gram-positive bacilli are often resistant (eg, Propionibacterium and Actinomyces spp), and the drug has minimal activity against aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity may occur, but this has not been established in humans. Effective principally against gram-negative organisms, including Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and some Serratia spp. Active also against many anaerobes, including Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Bacteroides spp (eg, Bacteroides fragilis). May be used for infants on assisted ventilation who are agitated and need sedation or as a sedative before procedures. Causes physiologic dependence; taper the dose gradually after long-term use to avoid withdrawal. When applied to extensive open wounds or burns, the possibility of absorption of the polyethylene glycol vehicle, resulting in serious renal toxicity, should be considered. It has minimal or no pharmacologic effect, even in high doses, in patients who have not received opiates. Infants must be monitored for reappearance of respiratory depression and the need for repeated doses. Indicated in the treatment of diarrhea resulting from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and as preoperative prophylaxis before intestinal surgery. Reversal of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (eg, tubocurarine and pancuronium) and occasionally for postoperative distention and urinary retention). Reversal of the blocking agent should not be attempted for at least 30 min after a dose of pancuronium or tubocurarine. Obtain an initial set of serum peak and trough levels at about the fourth maintenance dose. Acts within seconds to lower blood pressure; when discontinued, the effect dissipates within minutes. Thiocyanate may accumulate, especially in patients receiving high doses or those who have impaired renal function. Thiocyanate toxicity appears at plasma levels of ~5-10 mg/dL; levels of 20 mg/dL have been associated with death. Thiocyanate levels should be monitored in any patient receiving 5 mcg/kg/min or more of nitroprusside, especially those with renal impairment. Reconstitute contents of a 50-mg vial in 2-3 mL of D5W, then further dilute in D5W for infusion. Neonatal indications include oral candidiasis (thrush), Candida diaper rash, and benign mucocutaneous candidiasis. Spectrum of activity is identical to that of nafcillin sodium and methicillin sodium. The onset of action is generally 30-60 s, with a duration of action of ~40-60 min, but it may be much longer in neonates. Neostigmine methylsulfate and atropine sulfate are used for reversal (for dosage, see pages 624 and 595 respectively). Discard a container opened >24 h, discolored solution, or solution smelling of acetic acid (vinegar) because it may be toxic. Effective mainly against streptococci, some community-acquired staphylococci (except methicillin resistant and penicillinase-producing strains), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides (oropharyngeal strains), Leptospira spp, and Treponema pallidum. Some strains of group B streptococci are penicillinase producers, thus requiring the addition of an aminoglycoside antibiotic for synergistic bactericidal effect. A drug of choice in the treatment of symptomatic or asymptomatic congenital syphilis. Contains 120 mg of procaine per 300,000 units, which may cause allergic reactions, myocardial depression, or systemic vasodilation. There is cause for much greater concern about these effects in the neonate than in older patients. In neonates, the initial half-life is 100-120 h or longer, gradually declining to 60-70 h at ~3-4 weeks of age. Reduction in serum bilirubin levels is attributed to increased levels of glucuronyl transferase and intracellular Y-binding protein. More effective in reducing bilirubin levels in full-term infants than in premature infants and must be administered at least 2-3 days before detectable reductions can be observed. Effective in controlling symptoms of neonatal withdrawal syndrome, with the exception of vomiting and diarrhea. Monitor serum levels, and adjust the dosage to maintain between 15 and 40 mcg/mL for anticonvulsant activity. Bilirubin displaces phenytoin from albumin binding sites, increasing the percentage of unbound drug; this may complicate the interpretation of serum levels. Follows zero-order pharmacokinetics, in which small dosage adjustments may result in large changes in serum drug concentrations. Use in the long-term management of seizures in neonates is questionable because of the difficulty in appropriate dosing. Fosphenytoin has been associated with fewer adverse effects in general than phenytoin (adults). In adults and children, adverse effects include nystagmus, ataxia, lethargy, slurred speech, diplopia, headache, hirsutism, behavioral changes, and gum hyperplasia. The schedule usually begins at 2 months of age, but as young as 6 weeks of age is acceptable. May be given simultaneously with other immunizing agents as part of the routine immunization schedule. Experimental in infants and should be used only when traditional therapy has failed. The most severe adverse effect in adults is the "first-dose phenomenon," in which severe orthostatic hypotension occurs. Not indicated for adrenocortical insufficiency because of minimal mineralocorticoid activity. Prednisone has four times the anti-inflammatory potency of hydrocortisone, and half the mineralocorticoid potency. Withdraw the dose gradually after prolonged therapy to prevent acute adrenal insufficiency. Repeat as needed to a maximum dose of 10-15 mg/kg, then continuous infusion of 20-60 mcg/kg/min. May cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, skin rash, tachycardia, agranulocytosis, and hepatic toxicity.

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There are threshold doses above which organoleptic changes and off-flavor development occur medications with codeine order flutamide with mastercard. The success of the treatment depends on commodity and cultivar medications kidney failure 250 mg flutamide free shipping, dose of radiation medications in canada purchase flutamide 250 mg on line, degree of maturity treatment kidney stones purchase flutamide 250 mg fast delivery, physiological status of fruits treatment broken toe cheap 250mg flutamide with visa, temperature and atmosphere during and after treatment medications 1-z purchase 250 mg flutamide, pre, and postharvest treatments, and susceptibility of the microorganisms to be controlled [136]. Physiological status is continually changes with mechanical injury, season, and humidity at time of harvest. The response of each individual batch of fruits is therefore difficult to predict; thus, generalized dose levels and their consequences in quality are difficult to be developed. The packaging materials used during irradiation should not cause the production and release of unde sired substances, which may migrate into the food. At doses of 60 kGy and higher, some damage may occur in tin-coated steel and aluminum containers, but at the level of sterilizing doses there should not be any affect. For example, in case of high-fat-content foods, oleoresin enam els are unsuitable, but suitable for enzyme inactivation of foods. Irradiation apparently depolymerizes butyl-rubber sealing compounds used in cans [34]. A cubical form is most satisfactory for optimum dose distribution during irradiation [34]. El-Makhzoumi [30] mentioned that the effect of irradiation on plastic films depends on the nature of pack aging film, layers of packaging film, additives in formulation, temperature and oxygen content during treat ment, treatment dose, dose actually absorbed, and contact with foods. At doses less than 20kGy, physical 776 Handbook of Food Preservation, Second Edition changes in flexible containers are negligible. At strong Paperboard (wax-coated) 10 doses of 50kGy, mechanical properties of Cellophane (coated) 10 Polyolefin film 10 polymers can be improved by cross-linking Polystyrene film 10 [51]. Vinyl chloride?vinyl acetate An important problem in the irradiation of copolymer film 60 foods in plastic containers is the production Acrylonitrile copolymers 60 of gas and volatiles compounds, which may migrate into the food and cause off-flavors. Deschenes, Processing At sterilizing doses, nylon gives rise to little Fruits: Science and Technology, Vol. Some food packaging materials produce volatile compounds under certain conditions. Volatile com pounds are formed in polyethylene, polyester terephthalate, and oriented polypropylene after irradiation dose from 5 to 50kGy. Twenty-two compounds were identified for polyester terephthalate, 40 for ori ented polypropylene, and only acetone was identified for polyethylene, which could be a good candidate for irradiation of packaged food products. El-Makhzoumi [30] mentioned that these compounds are able to migrate into a packed food product and affect its quality. The kinetics of degradation showed that some compounds remain trapped in the polymer and can be used as irradiation detectors. Irradiated foods should be properly han dled and stored after treatment to avoid deterioration, spoilage, and loss of nutritive value. Thus, han dling, storage conditions, and packaging are important postirradiation considerations [34]. Irradiation of food and agricultural products is currently allowed in about 40 countries and approximately 60 commercial irradiation facilities are operating in the United States [118]. The most common irradiated food products for commercial use are spices and dry vegetable seasonings [73]. Loaharanu and Murrell [73] mentioned that the recent ban on the use of ethylene oxide for food by European Union could increase the quantity of spices and vegetables seasonings processed by irradiation in the near future. The fumigants eth ylene oxide (reported to be carcinogenic) and methyl bromide could be harmful to the ozone layer [72]. The safety issues of irradiated foods can be grouped as [88] (i) residual radioactivity, (ii) free radicals and radiolytic products, (iii) carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, (iv) nutrient quality, (v) polyploidy, (vi) toxicity, (vii) microbiological safety, and (viii) operator safety during processing. A complete review Irradiation Preservation of Foods 777 on the above aspects of safety is provided by Smith and Pillai [117]. The safety for human consumption of irradiated products has been questioned frequently [130]. The vast majority of toxicological studies and feeding trials have shown no evidence for toxic effects. However, some studies claimed to find evi dence for polyploidy in irradiated wheat used in children feed [57]. There is already a wide experience in the design, building, and operation of irradiation plants. Therefore, the plants must be controlled and inspected by authorities to ensure national and international radiological safety standards, for example, health and safety of workers and environmental pollution from radioisotopes [5]. Relatively small doses of irradiation can reduce the numbers of pathogenic organisms to a very low level. This may give rise to the growth of secondary microflora, such as Moraxella, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. Thus, Mitchell [86] expressed concerns in the absence of competing spoilage microorgan isms postirradiation, where toxin production by surviving pathogens may occur more quickly making the food unsafe to eat before it is visibly spoiled [62]. Irradiation should not be an excuse for poor hygiene and is not used for reducing unacceptably high levels of microbial contamination [57]. Smith and Pillai [117] identified two major concerns expressed by antiirradiation groups: misuse to avoid plant sanitation and environmental concerns. The volumes of irradiated foods are increasing and the future of irradiated foods is as bright as ever [97]. Moy [88] mentioned four reasons for the slow commercialization of food irradiation. Griffith [39] mentioned that the major factors that will determine the future of food irradiation are the development of a simple and reliable detection method, the harmonization of legislation, the com mitment of the food industry, and consumer attitudes. Similar to genetic engineering techniques in food production, it is essential that consumer education and consultation with consumers are an integral part of future developments. Loaharanu [71] reviewed the results of consumer attitude surveys in different coun tries. He concluded that in advanced countries consumers at large are still not knowledgeable about food irradiation. They need accurate information about safety, benefits, and limitations of food irradiation. Recently the importance of consumer education has also been identified [32,45,94]. Kilcast [57] mentioned three methods that have been developed and can currently be used for detection purpose. These are electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence, and detection of lipid breakdown volatiles. Moy, Delay in postharvest ripening and senescence of fruits, Preservation of Food by Ionizing Radiation. El-Mojaddidi, Chemical changes after irradiation and post-irradiation storage in tilapia and Spanish mackerel, J. Baccaunaud, Effects de l?ionisation sur les fruits et legumes destines a la consommation en frais, Ionisation des Produits Alimentaires (J. Wills, Irradiation of vacuum packaged sheep carcasses to extend chilled storage life, Proceedings European Meeting Meat Research Works, Helsinki, 1987, pp. Blythe, the Effect of Irradiation on the Organoleptic Quality of Fresh Chicken Carcasses, M. Pomilio, Effects of irradiation and storage on the flavor of garlic bulbs cv red, J. Willemot, Combinaison d?une faible dose d?irradiation avec l?atmosphere controlee pour ralentir le murissement des fraises, Proceedings of the International Conference on Technological Innovation in Freezing and Refrigeration of Fruits and Vegetables (D. Ruff, A review of the safety of cold pasteurization through irradiation, Food Control 7: 87 (1996). Desrosier, Technology of Food Preservation, 4th edition, Avi Publishing, Westport, 1977. Hasselmann, Radiation disinfestation of cowpea seeds con taminated by Callosobruchus maculatus, J. Turner, Some physical effects of postharvest gamma radiation on the fruit of sweet cherry, blueberry, and cranberry, J. Wills, Preservation of vacuum-packaged pork using irradia tion, Food Science and Technology in Industrial Development (S. Skowronski, Effect of low dose (100 krad) gamma radiation on the microflora of vacuum packaged ground pork with and without added sodium phosphates, J. Skowronski, Identification of microbial isolates from vacuum packaged ground pork irradiated at 1 kGy, J. El-Makhzoumi, Effect of irradiation of polymeric packaging material on the formation of volatile compounds, Food Packaging and Preservation (M. Andrassy, Interaction of ionising radiation and acidulants on the growth of the microflora of a vacuum-packaged chilled meat product, Int. Murano, Effect of irradiation treatment on selected pathogens and quality attributes of cooked pork chops and cured ham, J. Patterson, Effect of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on the micro biological safety of minced pork stored under temperature abuse conditions, Int. Patterson, Effect of low-dose irradiation on growth of and toxin production by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in roast beef and gravy, Int. Patterson, Comparison of the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in unirradiated and irradiated cook chill roast beef and gravy at refrigeration temperatures, Lett. Pesek, Poultry meat irradiation?effect of temperature on chemical changes and inactivation of micro-organisms, J. Lineweaver, Factors causing color and texture differ ences in radiation-sterilized chicken, Food Technol. Shogren, Experts advocates: how information affects the demand for food irradiation, Food Policy 27(2): 185 (2002). Buescher, Cell wall characteristics of gamma irradiation refrigerated cucumber pickles, J. Elbert, Physical and sensory tests on fresh strawberries subjected to gamma irradiation, Food Technol. Kader, Potential application of ionizing radiation in postharvest handling of fresh fruit and veg etables, Food Technol. Howker, Low-dose irradiation of fresh, non-frozen chicken and other preservation methods for shelf-life extension and for improving its public health quality, Food Preservation by Irradiation, Vol. Kampelmacher, Irradiation for control of Salmonella and other pathogens in poultry and fresh meats, Food Technol. Killoran, Chemical and physical changes in food packaging materials exposed to ionizing radiation, Rad. Tuncer, Effects of gamma irradiation on durum wheats and spaghetti quality, Cereal Chem. Fraser, Food Irradiation Technology Overview, Nordion International, Ontario, Canada, 1994. Dodds, Physical, chemical and sensory changes in irradiated fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere, J. Skowronski, Changes in microflora and other characteristics of vacuum packaged pork loins irradiated at 3. Parrish, Accelerated postmortem aging of beef utilizing electron beam irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging, J. Loaharanu, Food irradiation: current status and future prospects, New Methods of Food Preservation (G. Murrell, A role for irradiation in the control of foodborne parasites, Trends Food Sci. MacDougall, Instrument assessment of the appearance of foods, Sensory Quality in Foods and Beverages. Grau, Ionizing energy treatment of meat and meat products, Proceedings of the National Symposium Ionization Energy Treatment of Foods, Sydney, 1983. Umeda, Sprout inhibition in tubers and bulbs, Preservation of Food by Ionizing Radiation. Abdel-Kader, Food irradiation-physiology of fruits as related to feasibility of the technology, Adv. McDonald, Low-dose electron beam irradiation: a methyl bromide alternative for quarantine treatment of floride blueberries, Proc. Miller, Studies of Techniques for Extending the Shelf Life of Vacuum Packed Pork, M. Moseley, Ionizing radiation: action and repair, Mechanisms of Action of Food Preservation Procedures (G. Moy, Food irradiation-lessons and prospects for world food preservation and trade, Development of Food Science and Technology in South East Asia (O. Olson, Quality characteristics and sensory evaluation of ground beef irradiated under various packaging atmosphere, Presented at International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, San Antonio, 1995. Borsa, Effect of gamma ray and high-energy electron irradiations on breadmaking quality of two Canadian wheat cultivars, Can. Ronsivalli, Radurization and rancidation: fish and shellfish, Preservation of Food by Ionizing Radiation, Vol. Ogbadu, Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial population and essen tial oil of ginger, Proceedings of the 1st National Conference in Nuclear Methods (L. Hashimoto, the effect of gamma radiation on the microflora and essential oil of Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense) berries, Postharv. Covarrubias-Alvarez, Influence of gamma radiation on the rheological and functional properties of bread wheats, J. Nair, Shelf life enhancement of lamb meat under refrigeration by gamma irradiation, J. Patterson, Sensitivity of bacteria to irradiated on poultry meat under various atmosphere, Lett.

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